Fundamentals of Instruction

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This Fundamentals of Instruction (FOI) section has come from Chapter Two of The Complete CFI Binder. It can be purchased a la carte. This chapter is a total of 72 pages and contains a complete lesson for teaching your students and FAA Examiner.

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Lesson Plan Outline

Fundamentals of Instruction

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Human Behavior Outline

Definition of Human Behavior

Definition of Learning

Personality Types

Compatibility

Instructor and Student Relationship

Human Needs and Motivation

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Human Nature and Motivation

Douglas McGregor’s Theories

Human Factors that Inhibit Learning

Defense Mechanisms

Emotional Reactions

Anxiety

Normal Reactions to Stress

Abnormal Reactions to Stress

Instructor Actions Regarding Seriously Abnormal Students

Effective Communication Outline

Basic Elements of Communication

Source

Symbols

Receiver

Effective Instructor/Student Communication

Abilities

Attitudes

Experiences

Barriers to Effective Communication

Lack of Common Experience

Confusion Between Symbols and Symbolized Object

Overuse of Abstractions

Interference

Developing Communication Skills

Role Playing

Instructional Communication

Listening

Questioning

Instructional Enhancement

The Learning Process Outline

What is Learning

Learning Theory

Behaviorism

Cognitive Theory

Information Processing Theory Information

Constructivism

Higher Order Thinking Skills - (HOTS)

Scenario-Based Training - (SBT) 

How we Perceive the Environment

Sight - 75% Usage 

Hearing - 13% Usage

Touch - 6% Usage

Taste - 3% Usage

Smell - 3% Usage

Factors that Affect Perceptions

Physical Organism

Goals and Values

Self-Concept

Time and Opportunity (Basic Need)

Element of Threat

Insights 

Acquiring Knowledge

Memorization

Understanding

Application

Thorndike’s Laws of Learning

Readiness

Effect

Exercise

Primacy

Intensity

Recency

Domains of Learning

Cognitive Domain - The Basic Levels of Learning - (Thinking)

Affective Domain - (Feeling)

Psycho-Motor Domain - (Doing)

Characteristics of Learning

Purposeful

Result of Experience

Multifaceted

Active Process

Learning Styles

Visual

Auditory

Kinesthetic Learners

Hemispheric Dominance

Holistic/Serialist Theory

Acquiring Skill Knowledge

Cognitive State

Associative Stage

Automatic Response

Learning Plateaus

Types of Practice

Deliberate

Blocked

Random

Over-Learning of Knowledge

Multitasking

Importance

Attention Switching

Simultaneous Performance

Distractions and Interruptions

Fixation and Inattention

Scenario-Based Training - (SBT)

Errors

Slip - (An Error of Action)

Mistake - (An Error of Thought)

Motivation

Maintaining Motivation

Rewarding Success

Present New Challenges

Drop in Motivation

The Memory System

Sensory Register

Short Term Memory - (STM)

Information Retention

Forgetting

Retrieval Failure

Fading

Interference

Repression/Suppression

Threats Preventing Memory Retention

Retention of Learning

Praise Stimulates Learning

Recall is Promoted by Association

Favorable Attitudes Aid Retention

Learning with All Senses is Most Effective

Meaningful Repetitions Aid Recall

Mnemonics

Transfer of Learning

Habit Formation

How Understanding Affects Memory

Sources of Knowledge

Building Blocks of Learning

Extraneous Periods of Instruction

Student Confidence

The Blocks

Training

The Teaching Process Outline

Teaching Defined

Essential Teaching Skills

People Skills

Subject Matter Expert

Management Skills

Assessment Skills

Instructor’s Code of Conduct

Course of Training

Lesson Preparation

Overall Objective

Decision-Based Objective

Performance-Based Objectives

Standards

Presentation and Lesson Organization

Introduction

Attention 

Motivation

Overview

Conclusion

Training Delivery Methods

The Lecture

The Discussion

Guided Discussion

E-Learning

Computer Assisted Learning

Flight Simulator

Cooperative or Group Learning

Demonstration-Performance Method

Drill and Practice Method

Problem Based Learning

Higher Order Thinking Skills - (HOTS)

Scenario-Based Training - (SBT)

Case Study Method

Instructional Aid Theory

Enhanced Training Materials

Key Definitions

Course of Training

Curriculum

Training Course Outline

Syllabus

Steps of the Teaching Process

Preparation

Presentation

Application

Review and Evaluation

Assessment & Critique Outline

Purpose of Assessment

Characteristics of Effective Assessment

Objective

Flexible

Acceptable

Comprehensive

Constructive

Organized

Thoughtful

Specific

Written Assessment Characteristics

Reliability

Validity

Usability

Objectivity

Comprehensiveness

Discrimination

Types of Assessment

Written Assessment

Authentic Assessment

Collaborative Assessment

Critique and Oral Assessment

Instructor/Student Critique

Student-Led Critique

Small Group Critique

Individual Student Critique by Another Student

Self Critique

Written Critique

Oral Assessment

Characteristics of Effective Questions

Objective Questions

Types of Questions to Avoid

Answering Questions

Responsibilities & Professionalism Outline

Flight Instructor Responsibilities

Helping Students Learn

Maintaining Student Interest

Providing Adequate Instruction

Determining Adequate Standards of Performance

Emphasizing the Positive

Minimizing Student Frustration

Instructional Responsibilities

Adventure 

Physiological Student Obstacles

Ensuring Proper Skill Set

Required Special Emphasis Areas

Aviator’s Code of Conduct

Safety and Accident Prevention

Professionalism

Characteristics of a Good CFI

Sincerity

Acceptance of the Student

Personal Appearance and Habits

Demeanor

Proper Language

Evaluation of Student Ability

Demonstrated Ability

Keeping the Student Informed

Correction of Student Error

Professional Development

CFI Accountability Regarding Flight Exams

Knowledge Tests

Practical Tests

Techniques of Instruction Outline

Learning Obstacles During Flight Training

Unfair Treatment

Impatience

Worry or Lack of Interest

Physical Issues

Demonstration/Performance Training

Explanation Phase

Demonstration Phase

Student Performance/Instructor Supervision

Evaluation Phase

Telling Doing Technique of Instruction

Instructor Tells - Instructor Does

Student Tells - Instructor Does

Student Tells - Student Does

Student Does - Instructor Evaluates

Positive Exchange of Flight Controls

Sterile Cockpit Rules

Usage of Distractions

Integrated Flight Instruction

Developing Habit Patterns

Operating Efficiency

Procedures

See and Avoid

Accident Statistics

Assessment of Piloting Ability

Demonstrated Ability

Post-Flight

First Solo

Pre-Solo Debrief

Correction of Student Error

Pilot Supervision

Dealing With Normal Challenges

Visualization 

Practice Landings

Practical Test Recommendation

Aeronautical Decision Making

The Decision Making Process

Define the Problem

Choose a Course of Action

Implement the Decision and Evaluate the Outcome

Factors Affecting Decision Making

Stress Management

Recognizing Hazardous Attitudes

Use of Resources

Internal

External

Workload Management

Risk Management Outline

Defining Risk Management

Risk

Hazard

Safety

Principles of Risk Management

Accept No Unnecessary Risk

Make Risk Decisions At Appropriate Level

Accept Risk Only When Benefits Outweigh The Costs

Integrate Risk Management Into Planning At All Levels

Risk Management Process

Step 1 - Identify the Hazard

Step 2 - Assess the Risk

Step 3 - Analyze Risk Control Measures

Step 4 - Make Control Decisions

Step 5 - Implement Risk Controls

Step 6 - Supervise and Review

Implementing the Risk Management Process

Apply Steps in Sequence

Maintain a Balance in the Process

Apply the Process in a Cycle

Involve People in the Process

Levels of Risk

Risk Level Measurements By

Assessing Risk

Risk Management Models

Likelihood of an Event

Severity of an Event

Mitigating Risk

IMSAFE Checklist

PAVE Checklist

Three P-Model for Pilots

The 5-P Checklist

Situational Awareness

What is it

Obstacles to Maintaining Awareness

Operational Considerations

Planning Instructional Activity Outline

Develop Objectives and Standards for a Training Course

Objectives

Standards

Overall Objective

Theory of the Building Blocks of Learning

Requirements for Developing a Training Syllabus

Using a Training Syllabus

Purpose of a Lesson Plan

Characteristics of a Lesson Plan

Unity

Content

Scope

Practicality

Flexibility

Instructional Steps

Developing a Scenario-Based Lesson

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