Inflight Anti-Icing

IN-FLIGHT ANTI-ICING The critical areas and surfaces that need protection from ice buildup in flight are: Wings Tail and Horizontal Stabilizer Propellers Engine inlets Probes…

Ground Deicing

GROUND DEICING The terms “deicing” and “anti-icing” are often used interchangeably, but there is a subtle difference between the 2. Deicing refers specifically to removing…

Ice Formation

ICE FORMATION The 2 broad categories of ice formation are ground icing and inflight icing. GROUND AND INFLIGHT ICING GROUND ICING Ground icing results from…

Pressurization Controllers

CABIN PRESSURE CONTROLLERS & MODES The Cabin Pressure Controller (CPC) computers will either have 2 modes of operation (automatic and manual), or the CPC is…

Pressurization Valves

REGULATIONS There are 2 types of valves used to control pressurization levels: Outflow valves Safety Valves (or Pressure Relief Valves). Typically, safety valves are either…

Pressurization Operation

PRESSURIZATION OPERATION The whole premise of pressurization is that we take conditioned air from the packs, and simply pump it into the fuselage. The more…

Pack Operation

PACK OPERATION The packs work based on two primary principles. These two principles are: The effect that compressing and expanding air has on its temperature.…

Bleed Air Operation

BLEED AIR OPERATION The APU runs at a constant speed. Because of this, it has a constant output of bleed air and only needs one…

Engine Abnormals

ENGINE ABNORMALS There are a number of engine abnormals that can be experienced in all turbine engines. They are Compressor Stalls Hot Starts Hung Starts…

Engine Indications

ENGINE INDICATIONS Percent RPM Indications The engine manufacturer will determine what the maximum RPM of the engine is. However, rather than have those values read…